This paper proposes a new irrigation system using fuzzy logic technique by mapping the knowledge and experience of a traditional farmer. Fuzzy logic control, which is similar to the human way of thinking, has emerged as the most active tool in automatic control. The purpose of fuzzy logic controller is to automatically achieve and maintain some desired state of a system and process by monitoring system variables as well as taking appropriate control action.
The aim of this work is to develop an intelligent control using fuzzy logic approach for irrigation of agricultural field, which simulates or emulates the human being’s intelligence. The status of any agricultural field, in terms of evapotranspiration and error may be assumed as input parameters and the decision is made to determine the amount of water required for the area to be irrigated, well in advance. This leads to use effective utilization of various resources like water and electricity and hence becomes a cost effective system for the expected yield.
In the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the application of the fuzzy set theory to many control problems. For many complex control systems, the construction of an ordinary model is difficult due to nonlinear and time varying nature of the system. Fuzzy Control has been applied in traditional control systems, which yields promising results, It is applied for the processes, which yields promising results, it is applied for the processes, which are too complex to be analyzed by conventional techniques or where the available information is uncertain. In fact, fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is easier to prototype, simple to describe and verify, can be maintained and also extended with grater accuracy in less time. These advantages make fuzzy logic technology to be used for irrigation system also.
NEED FOR MODERN IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Water and electricity should be optimally utilized in an agricultural like India. The development in the filed of science and technology should be appropriately used in the field of agriculture for better yields. Irrigation has traditionally resulted in excessive labour and nonuniformity in water application across the filed. Hence, an automatic irrigation system is required to reduce the labour cost and to give uniformity in water application across the field.
In the irrigation system, plant take-varying quantities of water at different stages of plant growth. Unless adequate and timely supply of water is assured, the physiological activities taking place within the plant are bound to be adversely affected, thereby resulting in reduced yield of crop. The amount of water to be irrigated in an irrigation schedule depends upon the evapotranspiration(ET) from adjacent soil and from plant leaves at that specified time. The rate of ET of a given crop is influenced by its growth stages, environmental conditions and crop management. The consumptive use or evapotranspiration for a given crop at a given place may vary through out the day, through out the month and through out the crop period. Values of daily consumptive use or monthly consumptive use are determined for a given crop and at a given place. It also varies from crop to crop. There are several elimatological factors, which will influence and decide the rate of evaporation. Some of the important factors of elimate influencing the evaporation are radiation, temperature, humidity and wind speed. In this work, the input variables chosen for the system are evapotranspiration and rate of change of evapotranspiration called as error